A Newport man is accused of trying to buy a Kalashnikov assault rifle and other firearms in Lebanon.
The 39-year-old was arrested at Melbourne Airport on Sunday after arriving on a flight back from Lebanon.
It follows a nine-month investigation by Australian Federal Police and Lebanese authorities to identify potential suppliers and traffickers of firearms.
AFP investigators allege the man sought to buy weapons including an AK-47 and semi-automatic handguns.
Commander Amanda Kates said the firearms were the type traditionally sought by organised crime figures.
“We had real fears they could have been used to commit or facilitate other crimes,” she said.
“While charges have been laid, our investigators will continue working with domestic and international law enforcement partners to identify the full scope of this matter.”
The man has been charged with seven offences relating to the attempted purchase of firearms and money laundering while overseas, including bringing more than $10,000 out of Australia.
He fronted the Melbourne Magistrates Court on Monday and is due to reappear in the same court in January.